OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT
DESCRIPTION:
Obesity is defined as having an unhealthy amount of body fat.
Overweight is defined as an excess amount of body weight as compared to an acceptable weight.
The common tool to determine the presence of obesity and whether a person is overweight is the body mass index ( BMI). It measures body weight in relation to height.
NOTE: A BMI may indicate that a person is overweight, but it can be due to lean muscle and not excess body fat ( such as in athlete).
FREQUENT SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
• Low energy level.
• Breathing/ Snoring problems, sleep apnea.
• Appearance of large body size.
• Fatigue and joint pain from supporting excess weight.
CAUSES :
Obesity and Overweight occur when a person consumes more calories than he or she burns. Other risk factors, can affect this balance in different people.
RISK INCREASES WITH :
• Genetic factors:- Obesity can run in families.
• Emotional feelings - Some people eat when they are depressed, upset, angry, sad or bored.
• Eating disorder such as binge eating.
• Metabolic and endocrine disorders.
• Drugs (Steroids, some antidepressant and others).
• Rarely, neurological disorders.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES:
• Proper diet, nutrition and regular exercise.
• Behavior and lifestyle changes.
EXPECTED OUTCOME:
Obesity and overweight can be controlled if motivation is maintained.
POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS :
• High risk for many major physical health problems that can lead to disability and death. • Emotional problems. These can include depression, and feeling unattractive, rejected and shameful. • Prejudice or discrimination at work, school social occasions and travel. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
GENERAL MEASURES:
The body mass index (BMI) formula uses height and weight to measure weight status.
Adult BMI 25 to 29.9 = overweight.
Adult BMI 30 or more = obese.
BMI formula = weight in kg/(height in meters)2.
• Waist size (circumference) measures abdominal fat. Over 40 inches (102 cm) in men and over 35 inches (88 cm) in women indicates health and obesity risk factors.
• Treatment steps depend on health status, age, degree of obesity or overweight, and motivation. Steps can include a combination of diet, exercise, behavior modification and drugs. Gastrointestinal surgery may be recommended with severe obesity.
• You and your Doctor can develop a weight-loss plan based on your individual needs. Keep a food and activity diary to keep tract of your progress.
• Book, websites and weight-loss programs are available to help with weight loss. Diet plans should provide proper nutrition, information about exercise and behavior changes, and maintaining the weight loss for the long-term .
• Behavior changes start with identifying the behaviors that lead a person to overeat and be inactive. Then learn how to change and maintain the new behavior. Support groups or a weight loss counselor can help.
• Gastric surgery to reduce weight may be recommended after other weight loss methods fail.
MEDICATIONS :
Drug therapy as an aid to weight loss is usually not helpful. Drug for obesity may be prescribed on a trial basis to see if they help. Amphetamine compounds are not recommended for treating obesity.
ACTIVITY :
Increased physical activity starts with a daily 10 min walk. Aim for 20 to 30 min of activity 3 to 4 times a week, plus muscle strengthening 2 times a week.
DIET :
• Choose an eating plan that will work for you. Diets need to be healthy, help you lose your weight and maintain the new weight. A dietiticion can help you choose a plan.
• A realistic weight loss rate is 0.4 kg per week or 1 pound per week or 450 gms per week.
• It is normal to have periods when no weight is lost on your plan.
• Do not stop, weight loss will begin again.